bulletproof coffee

Probiotics over Prozac: Ketogenic Eating for the Best Brain. (Featuring, Your Microbiome, Butter Coffee, Anxiety, Fasting, Grain-free, Dopamine and More)

There are a lot of subjects here. They are important. And they connect a lot of what we’ve been talking about here, in separate strings, for a long time.

Many of the newest learnings in health are related to the significance of the microbiome.

From personal experience, I regularly feel what I can only describe as the health of my brain. Chemicals, transmitter-stuff, certain states. Which drives me into these subjects searching for ifs, and if-so-what, is going on. Because there is always a reason for why we feel the way we do. (These topics are also of significant personal importance to me in how they relate to anxiety, which is something I’ve had to handle my entire life. More on that in point 5, below.)

Otherwise, this is all just more of the same: learn, live better, prosper. Shall we?

1. We are our microbiomes. I’ve said it; you know it, but a few refreshers JIC:

2. Our microbiomes are best supported by probiotics, live food and excellent digestion via which to absorb the goodness.

3. Our microbiomes are responsible for not only our physical wellbeing, but also our psychological health. Here we go.

You have neurons both in your brain and your gut – including neurons that produce neurotransmitters like serotonin. In fact, the greatest concentration of serotonin, which is involved in mood control, depression and aggression, is found in your intestines, not your brain.

“Mounting research indicates that problems in your gut can directly impact your mental health, leading to issues like anxiety and depression.

“The gut-brain connection is well-recognized as a basic tenet of physiology and medicine, so this isn't all that surprising, even though it's often overlooked.

“There's also a wealth of evidence showing intestinal involvement in a variety of neurological diseases."

And, note this point “The fact that this study showed any improvement at all is remarkable, considering they used commercial yogurt preparations that are notoriously unhealthy.”

Now, consider what you can do with legit probiotics. (Legit = 1 billion CFU/serving for example. It’s pretty difficult to measure the amount of probiotics in packaged foods but a really rough estimate would put a high-quality Greek yogurt at about 1M per gram, from what I understand.)

4. Therefore, our brains (physically and psychologically) depend on the health of our bellies.

“The trillions of bacteria living in a person’s gut can communicate directly with the brain via the Vagus Nerve that connects them. Bacteria can also communicate with the brain via the enteric nervous system, the nervous system of the digestive track. Believe it or not, there are actually more neurons wrapped around the gut than there are in the spinal cord.

“We are starting to find out that gut bugs can communicate with the brain, scientists say, by modulating the immune system or by actually producing neurotransmitters.

Mark Lyte, a researcher at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center who studies the effect that microbes can have on the endocrine systems (the body system of the endocrine glands and the hormones they produce)says, “I’m actually seeing new neurochemicals that have not been described before being produced by certain bacteria. These bacteria are, in effect, mind-altering microorganisms.”

"Through this communication from the gut to the brain, the gut bugs can affect behavior and mood. Maybe those folks who coined the expression “gut feeling” were actually on to something! Recent research supports the theory that disturbances in the gut microbiome, or the combination of microbes living in a particular person’s gut, can play a role in some psychopathology such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and even autism.

5. Personal experience has proven this to be the case.

I have a particular interest in this because I’ve dealt with anxiety my entire life. At age four, when my parents divorced, I started getting stomachaches. Or, that’s how I felt. Meaning I was anxious, uneasy, felt afraid (had separation anxiety, simply) that “felt” like a stomach ache – and which would often make me actually sick (throw up) but at times like: being dropped off at school or left with a babysitter; sleepovers at friends’ houses; camps – god I hated camps.

Thankfully, medication wasn’t an option because I simply “had a stomach ache” – like, maybe I took some Pepto-Bismol here and there. I learned two ways to cure the situation: 1. Find a corner and go to sleep, which I did in every acceptable instance, or 2. Forget about it, which was outside of my control. That being part of the point. Meaning, if I was distracted by something pleasant – a story that made me laugh or a friend engrossing me in idk a game of cat’s cradle – the “stomach ache” would go away. Meaning, it wasn’t (only) physical. It was psychological. With such severity that it could become physical and make me physically ill, but obviously the two are one.

This is a much longer story, that involves 20 more years of learnings about anxiety, +/- a visit to the emergency room, eventual medication, no-medication, therapy, lots of books and ultimately, understanding.

6. Specific eating styles, and some lack-of-eating styles, are best for your brain.

We know why we don’t eat meat (and if not, watch Forks Over Knives).

And, why we don’t eat processed foods.

We understand raw and alive. No-sugar should be a given.

Which leaves us with that odd grain-free angle.

In researching my current eating style, and brain health, I stumbled onto the research subjects that connect ALL of this: “The Neuropharmacology of the Ketogenic Diet”

  • What it is:“A keto diet is well known for being a low carb diet, where the body produces ketones in the liver to be used as energy. It's referred to as many different names – ketogenic diet, low carb diet, low carb high fat (LCHF), etc."– Google (love that new algorithm)

“A diet that is high in fat (60-70% of calories), is almost by definition low in carbs, and this means that when eating a high fat diet, it’s likely that one is at least partially and some of the time in a state of ketosis. Ketosis is when the body switches over from burning glucose (the kind of sugar our body uses as fuel) to burning an alternate fuel called ketones, which are made from the breakdown of fatty acids in the liver when glycogen (how the body stores glucose) levels are depleted.

“Basically, the body starts burning fat for energy when we don’t consume very much sugar or foods that readily break down into sugar — carbohydrates. While glucose is metabolically preferred by the body (meaning that if glucose is present, the liver produces only small, baseline amounts of ketones), it is interesting to note that ketones are a principal source of energy during early postnatal development, when our brains are growing and developing at the most rapid pace of our lives.

“Ketosis is an entirely normal and healthy state for the body to be in – in fact, most people will be in some amount of ketosis every single morning after ‘fasting’ while they sleep (you can often smell the acetone – a ketone – in your pee when you wake up), which is a sign of metabolic health."

7. I am not on a ketogenic diet, but my diet is ketogenic.

Eating this way makes me feel amazing. Absolutely excellent. Strong, clear-headed, calm, (very) high-energy. “Humming” is how I often describe it. (It’s also supportive of my aggressive exercise routines, and compatible with intermittent fasting / bulletproof coffee (which in turn support each other) and all of the aforementioned “eat” or “don’t-eat”s.

So, it’s good. And, it turns out it’s good for your brain too.

8. The ketogenic diet is exceptionally neurologically beneficial.

One area in which the ketogenic diet is completely uncontroversial is as a relatively effective non-pharmaceutical treatment for a set of common neurological disorders.

Another way the ketogenic diet improves brain function is through several kinds of antioxidant benefits. Oxidative stress can cause harm all throughout the body, and the brain is no different – oxidative damage has been implicated in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases as well as simple brain aging.

The last mechanism through which a ketogenic diet may confer cognitive benefit is through the increase ofγ-aminobutyric acid(GABA) levels in the brain. GABA is the brain’s major inhibitory neurotransmitter.

It has been known since the time of Hippocrates that fasting is an effective treatment for seizures, and the ketogenic diet was designed to mimic the fasting state.

The diet is associated with a wide range of neurochemical changes, some of which may contribute to its therapeutic actions and others that are epiphenomenal.

During consumption of the ketogenic diet, marked alterations in brain energy metabolism occur, with ketone bodies partly replacing glucose as fuel.

“There is evidence that it causes effects on intermediary metabolism that influence the dynamics of the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter systems in brain.

Running brain on ketones considerably impacts amino acid metabolism, or more specifically neurotransmitters. Ketogenic diets [are] neuroprotective and improve cognitive functionimprove behavior in epileptic children, and [are] even efficacious in bipolar disorder.  Many of these effects could be attributable to alterations in glutamate and gaba signaling. Excitotoxicity. Brain fog.”

That’s probably enough for today, huh?

More reading:

All photos by Jana Styblova.

Next up, we’ll get into GABA, which I’m trial-running now. And, how about prebiotics.

The End

LA's Getting a Bulletproof Coffee Cafe

You heard it here first - that bizarre butter-in-coffee thing. And a thing it definitely is now.

Last weekend, here in NYC, I actually searched maps for a cafe that served Bulletproof coffee. Assuming that the eccentricity serving epicenter we are would be all over it by now. No dice. But, we can't be far behind LA, which is getting theirs.

Aside from the coffee, the concept is pretty perfect (progressive):

"Besides the coffee, food and supplements, Asprey’s building some innovative “bio-hacking technology” into the shop that will be great for your overall health. He’s installing lighting compatible with your circadian rhythms, a Whole Body Vibration platform for muscle and bone stimulation, and there’s a small seating area where the furniture and flooring will be “connected to the earth.”

It’s an approach called “Earthing” that Asprey’s into because “studies show that when people don’t have the opportunity to connect to the earth they drop a static charge and it increases inflammation,” he says. “I want people to think, ‘I felt different when I was there,’” says Asprey, who resides in Vancouver Island, in Canada. “There is no limit to what we will do to make people perform better. This is a place to upgrade yourself.”

{Well&Good for the full piece}

Otherwise, a year and a half later, I am still making BP coffee on a daily basis. My personal preference is a much lighter version (cleverly named, Bulletproof Coffee Light). The next mission is a version I can store at the office to add to my second cup of the day. Oh, I'm not currently caffeine-free. But we'll go through that withdrawal again eventually. Makes for good TV.


Intermittent Fasting - What's It 101

Another bit of wisdom gleaned on my Honduran retreat is that of the benefits of Intermittent Fasting. Not something I was familiar with prior to the retreat but possibly very responsible for the significant weight loss I experienced there - and the type: I have never, ever been leaner. Meaning no noticeable muscle mass loss, which I expected in the switch from a significantly protein-rich diet to one of nearly none (we ate entirely raw vegan for seven days). I noticed the weight loss on the second or third day and was fascinated/delighted to find myself, as we say at the gym: cut. Ripped. And moreso every morning. Obviously not carrying water weight but neither much body fat. And we were doing nearly no cardio. (Strenuous Ashtanga yoga and morning hikes/swims or bouldering, yes, but no sprinting intervals uphill, which is my usual multi-weekly routine).

I assumed it was the raw food until I increased the amount of fat I was eating (coconut meat, nuts and seeds, olive oil or tahini) and continued to significantly drop, what I discovered upon arriving home and weighing myself, seven pounds in seven days. I have never lost that much weight that quickly, and felt and looked amazing. And, I was in the best shape of my life before the trip. I'd actually anticipated gaining weight given how strict my routine was prior.

So Intermittent Fasting: Very basically, and it's quite basic anyway - as far as I so far understand, is yes fasting. Done to suit your needs and self control however, it's quite easy - and extremely effective.

On retreat, we ate dinner at 6pm and then nothing more until 9am breakfast. That then creates a 15-hour fast, every day. Approaches vary from fasting for 16 to 20 hours regularly, or more for the more extreme / self-controlled. I find 16 to be about my max, though have only just begun. And I find it much, much easier to finish eating early in the evening, than to get very far into my day without food. It's also refreshing to fall asleep well-digested and lighter than with a full stomach (which always just keeps me awake anyway). Also, when eating all of your calories within an 8-hour window (plus or minus) you've got to really eat. Eating until full rather than restricting calories or quantities.

I'll now pass this over to The Hacked Mind to expand on the benefits of IF.


The Ultimate Guide to Intermittent Fasting

by Mans Denton

Compared to any other health supplement, research on intermittent fasting is scarce. After all, there is little money in telling people to eat less often. The bit of data that exists is very clear, however: intermittent fasting (IF) is extremely healthy no matter what your health goals.

Most people have found intermittent fasting as a method of losing fat and gaining muscle. Indeed, there are tremendous hormonal changes involved with intermittent fasting that can allow practitioners to gain lean mass, but the anti-aging and disease prevention aspects are as important if not more so. While there may be some other intermittent fasting guides, this is my ultimate guide to this practice.

First, I’ll explain how you can get started even if you have no experience. Then I’ll detail the scientific research to help you determine whether it is something you would like to pursue. This is going to be a long one so grab some…tea!

Stop Eating and Start Living

The concept of intermittent fasting is not one that most people are willing to try. I’ll admit, willfully depriving yourself of food seems like a bad idea when you are hungry. As I’ll explain in more detail later, the only reason you feel regularly hungry is because of the expectation of food and the choices that you consume. Understanding this will allow you to easily start with intermittent fasting and overcome the first few weeks of moderate unpleasantness. Here are some methods you can use in order to start intermittent fasting, which have helped me very much:

1. Start with one day

Intermittent fasting is no different than anything else. If you consider doing IF for the rest of your life, it will seem daunting. Just tackle the first day and you will realize that it is not that bad to eat only 4 – 8 hours a day. With a single day on your belt it is infinitely easier to move to day two, three, and before you know it you will be fasting normally.

2. Determine your goals

Before you start an IF protocol, you should determine your goals. If you want to use it for body composition (i.e: fat loss, muscle growth) purposes, then you can do a Lean Gains style 16 hour fast with an 8 hour feeding window every day. If you would prefer to practice IF for anti-aging and disease prevention, you can even get away with 36 hours of fasting. It all depends on what you are looking to do, but remaining under 72 hours is recommended.

3. Time your IF for social purposes

Technically, you can do an intermittent fast from 9:30 am until 5:30 pm. With this schedule, you will not only eat more meals and calories, but you will probably cheat more often. Consider social situations and the temptation to eat dinner later than 5:30pm. I make it easier on myself by allowing my 8 hour feeding window (when I eat) from 12pm – 8pm.

4. Wake up and drink water

If you choose the IF protocol that I advocate, fasting overnight and then until 12-2pm, then it is a good idea to overcome hunger in the morning with a few choice methods. First, drink water as soon as you wake up. It may not seem like it, but your body is naturally dehydrated while you sleep. Ensure you replenish the water as soon as you wake up and the feeling of hunger will slightly dissipate.

5. Fasting is better with tea / coffee

When I fast in the morning, I make sure to drink a little bit of tea. This will not break the fast so long as there is no additional sugar or cream. Drink it warm and straight and it will help to focus and remove any hunger pangs.

Some people, including prominent biohackers like Jolly and Dave Asprey, enjoyBulletproof® coffee. This formulation includes coffee, MCT oil, and butter. The ingredients offer a lot of calories that the body can burn as fuel, but without disrupting essential bodily functions, such as cell repair. I have yet to try it, but many endorse it. It will definitely make the start of your fast that much easier.

6. You won’t be hungry forever

The hormones that inform hunger are based primarily on habit more than anything else. The reason you are hungry during the morning is because you are used to eating then. After a few weeks, (approximately 4 or less) you will not be hungry at all during your fasting periods. Within the first week, the hunger should dissipate. Knowing that you will not have to live with hunger forever is a great way to begin from a psychological perspective.

7. Choose a day to indulge

Some people consider it wise to have a “cheat day” consisting of whatever foods you would like. I am a staunch opponent of such days, but I do have higher calorie / carbohydrate days as well. My days include 85% dark chocolate, almond butter, and more sweet potatoes, which are all healthier / cleaner sources to indulge upon.

8. Stay busy while fasting

One of the reasons it is so easy to fast overnight is because you are sleeping. If you are awake, make sure you are staying busy as best as you can. At the beginning you are not going to help your cause if you focus on your lack of food!

9. Food choices matter

You may find intermittent fasting to be a great way of easily improving your health, but none of it will matter if you do not properly eat during your feeding window. I advocate (and practice) a low-carbohydrate, mostly Paleo style diet that is high in fat and protein. I was raised as a vegetarian for 20 years. So no, I’m no steak and potatoes hillbilly.

10. It isn’t for everyone

Don’t make the mistake of thinking that intermittent fasting is for everyone. See how you feel for a few weeks and determine whether the practice is right for you. Sure, there is plenty of evidence that it is a healthy and optimal practice, but for some people it just doesn’t work. My health conscious friend Madelyn has tried to no avail. Don’t feel let down if you would rather not pursue it!

Pregnant or breastfeeding mothers should probably not fast nor should those with serious medical conditions. Speak to a doctor if you feel more comfortable with their advice.

Increased Brain Function

Now that you have some tips to get started, we will dive into the science of it all. Here at The Hacked Mind, we love improved brain function! Conventional wisdom indicates that frequent meals are the best way to keep your brain focused and productive. It’s common to see individuals consuming meals, snacks etc. to maintain the calories they need to think creatively and function more efficiently. So, how does intermittent stack up against constant / frequent consumption? Turns out, it’s much better.

In the same way reduced oxidative stress improves aging, it also improves memory. This is one of the reasons why animal studies show decreased Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease. The subsequent cellular stress resistance offers the brain plenty of benefits.

One of our favorite neurotransmitters, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is like fertilizer for the brain. It promotes neurogenesis and increases brain capacity. Typically, BDNF increases with physical activity, but intermittent fasting has a similar impact. If you can’t get enough exercise, start fasting!

Dietary restriction, whether caloric restriction or intermittent fasting (but we love the latter!), can lead to the stimulation of new stem cells and synaptic plasticity. The connections between neurons (through synapses) are made quicker and more efficiently.

Whether you want to improve your brain function in the present so that you can make quicker connections, think more creatively, and be more efficient or just prevent brain function deterioration with age, it is a good idea to take up intermittent fasting.

TL;DR: IF can improve brain function in the short term by producing BDNF neurotransmitters. They also help prevent long-term brain deterioration.

Disease Prevention, Wellness, and Aging

Diseases of civilization have become an important topic in modern discourse. Things like cancer, diabetes, and others are some of the biggest killers throughout the world and in the United States particularly. As medical care recipients far outweigh healthier individuals, the country’s medical finances are in disarray. Therefore, it is striking to find a practice like intermittent fasting that is so simple and can profoundly affect the body’s chances of contracting any of these diseases.


For diseases, such as diabetes, one of the most important factors is insulin resistance. Due to modern food abundance, it is easy to elevate blood sugar levels beyond what our ancestors could have ever done. In doing so, our hormones have fallen completely out of balance. Problems with insulin are undoubtedly the cause of most diabetes related problems. Researchers in Berkeley, CA tested calorie-restriction and a form of intermittent fasting on animals and came to startling conclusions.

Throughout the studies, fasting glucose concentrations decreased. Three studies found decreased circulating glucose concentrations after 20 – 24 weeks. In plain terms, the animals were properly regulating sugar to avoid diabetes.

In human studies, the scientists were unable to come to such conclusions. However, they did record more insulin sensitivity in patients who had undergone the intermittent fasting protocol. Even when people ate as much as they wanted during the eating window, so long as they spent 16 – 20 hours fasting, they were able to increase blood sensitivity.

IF can improve blood glucose levels and insulin sensitivity, which are the two biggest biomarkers of diabetes.

Cardiovascular Disease

Poor cardiovascular performance is a result of many lifestyle factors, such as dieting and exercise. Clogged arteries are a leading factor in cardiovascular disease and elevated cholesterol (of certain types) levels often point towards a brewing storm.

A study at the University of Utah questioned 500 people who had fasted at least 1 day per month and found that they were 40% less likely to have clogged arteries. Furthermore, after only 3 weeks of intermittent fasting protocols, patients were able to see increased HDL levels (good cholesterol) and decreased triglyceride levels (bad). Decreased blood pressure in humans has not been seen, but is apparent in animals.

TL;DR: IF decreased biomarkers that point to cardiovascular disease while improved those that indicate cardiovascular health. Additionally, clogged arteries seem to be less of a problem for those with this dietary regimen.


No human cancer studies with intermittent fasting exists, but animal studies are clear: intermittent fasting decreases the likelihood of getting cancer. After only 16 weeks eating the same foods, but in restricted fasting windows, mice had a 33% higher risk for certain cancer types.

The most likely explanation, which would indicate a similar benefit in humans, is theautophagic process. Autophagy is a process that degrades damaged cell membranes. Often the process will support the death of cancerous cells, but continually eating brings the body out of an autophagic state.

TL;DR: Animal studies show a dramatic decrease in cancer after only 16 weeks of IF; largely by allowing the body to perform autophagic functions.

The Gender Gap

Between all of the studies, an interesting caveat of intermittent fasting becomes apparent. With insulin sensitivity was tested with intermittent fasting, women saw little to no improvements. For decreasing triglyceride levels, the results were the same. That does not mean women should or cannot partake in intermittent fasting, but studies seem to indicate less benefit or a higher level of health before participating.


The research regarding aging and caloric restriction is clear, but who wants to eat less? With intermittent fasting you can get many of the same benefits as caloric restriction, but while eating more of what you want.

Oxidative stress is one of the primary factors in aging and intermittent fasting can reduce the damage to your cells. The scant evidence indicates intermittent fasting decreases the markers of oxidative stress (including 8-isoprostane, nitrotyrosine, protein carbonyls, and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts) while increasing the anti-oxidants levels in the body. Again, this has to do with autophagy along with other factors.

A 1956 modified intermittent fasting study in Spain followed elderly subjects for 3 years. One of the groups had a standard diet and this resulted in 219 days in the hospital with 13 deaths over the trial. The other group with intermittent fasting included in their routine managed only 6 deaths and 123 days in the hospital. Pretty, striking right?

Hormones have a particularly important role as well. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) stimulates growth and reproduction, but this drives aging even quicker. With decreased IGF-1 from intermittent fasting, your body starts to repair cells.

TL;DR: Oxidative stress, the major component in aging, is reduced through IF without the need to reduce calories consumed. Joy! Eat more delicious food! Decreased IGF-1 also allows more cell repair to take place.

More Muscle, Less Fat

If increased brain function, anti-aging, and disease prevention don’t tickle your fancy, one of the most common / popular uses for intermittent fasting is for body composition. Whether you are trying to shed a lot of weight or just remove the last bit of belly fat before summer, intermittent fasting can help. Best of all, for biohackers like myself, intermittent fasting is an “easy win”. The only thing you have to restrict iswhen you eat. No exhausting yourself on the treadmill or eating bland food.

Much of the body composition conventional wisdom is flawed. As the authors of Man 2.0: Engineering the Alpha are aware, theories about metabolism are wrong. While eating more often can increase the metabolic rate, the thermic effect of food is based on caloric intake rather than timing. If you compact the same number of calories in a shorter window, you’ll have the same metabolic rate and your body will be burning at the same speed as otherwise.

A study in Louisiana showed that metabolic rate remained the same and subjects lost 4 +/- 1% of their body fat as a result of an IF regimen. Others indicate an increase in fat oxidation, which is correlated to fat-weight loss.

Common sense also indicates that with a shorter window of eating, there is less likelihood of overeating. It is not only impractical, but often uncomfortable to eat too many calories / meals with a short feeding window.

Hormones of Hunger and IF

As my free book Brain Hacking 101 indicates, balanced hormones and neurotransmitters are of the utmost importance for your general wellbeing and health. Optimizing them naturally can be incredibly effective and that is exactly what intermittent fasting helps you to do with hunger and body fat storage.


You have probably never read about ghrelin, but it is one of the most important factors when trying to begin an IF regimen. This hormone is responsible for the feeling of hunger. The cells responsible for producing ghrelin operate on a circadian rhythmthat is determined by meal times. Therefore, you only get hungry because of when you are used to eating, not necessary when you need to eat (within reason).

You will see a metabolic increase during short term fasting periods because your body has an evolutionary response to get off of your ass to find some food. Once you can optimize production of ghrelin, you can get by with eating less with ease.


There is always one trickster in the bunch and leptin is just that. This hormone is most responsible for thyroid hormones that regulate fat loss and metabolism. Because leptin is produced in fat stores, the less you have the harder it is to produce. This can result in stagnation, plateaus in physical fitness and body composition.

When leptin can be spiked, through the process of intermittent fasting feeding windows, it can help burn more body fat. From a body composition perspective, it is actually better to have a day with higher calories and carbs. Some promote a “cheat day” that allows for eating whatever is desired, however I would suggest something far more conservative. I incorporate a high calorie day, which corresponds with high intensity training. My poison is 85% dark chocolate and almond butter.


As indicated earlier, insulin is one of the most important benefactors of any IF regimen. Many consider the early morning hours to be the best time to eat carbohydrates due to insulin sensitivity. However, it turns out that insulin sensitivity is only greater due to fasting over night, not because of the morning. Therefore, if you are fasting for 16 hours or more (rather than 8-10 for sleeping) you will see better insulin sensitivity.

More importantly for muscle growth, if you want to take advantage of carbohydrates, it’s best to utilize them later at night. Increased carb intake at night promotes higher growth hormone (GH) production, which will impact muscle repair.

You’re One Hack Away

Intermittent fasting may not be for everyone, but those who test it and overcome a brief period of change usually find that it is an incredibly effective method to improve your life. Busy entrepreneurs, doctors, and anyone else can appreciate a schedule with fewer meals that can improve health and memory. Even aesthetically minded individuals can find common ground with the body composition benefits of IF protocols. Using the information provided above and the evidence to back it up, try for yourself!

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